Where is Qishan where Zhuge Liang “six out of Qishan”?What are the military implications?

2022-05-03 0 By

It is described in The Romance of The Three Kingdoms that Zhuge Liang went six times to mount Qishan to attack Cao Wei in the north, and finally died of exhaustion.Although it is said that Zhuge Liang sent troops from Qishan to attack Wei twice as recorded in the historical books, there is a big gap between the two, but generally speaking, “six qishan” is synonymous with Zhuge Liang’s northern expedition, and Qishan is also the battle ground between Wei and Shu Han in The Three Kingdoms.So why is this a war zone?First of all, we see its geographical location from the map, Qishan is located in the east of Lixian County of Longnan City, Gansu Province, north of proud to the west (now Dabuzi Mountain), east to Lu City (now Yanguan town), almost 50 li.Qishan is located in the throat of Shu Long, controlling the key points of attack and defense, and it is also a place that shu Han troops will pass through if they want to launch a northern expedition.From the map of The Three Kingdoms, the border areas of Shu Han and Cao Wei, Longnan and Hanzhong and other terrain can be described by the jagging teeth.At that time, Hanzhong and Wudu prefecture were under the control of Shu Han, and Qishan was the key point of contention between Shu Han and Cao Wei.In the beginning, Qishan was garrisoned and defended by the troops of Cao Wei, but later it was captured by the Han army during its first northern expedition.After this, Qishan undertook several times change hands.It is of great significance for the Han army to occupy the Qishan mountains. As long as the Shu Han army attacks north along the Qishan Mountains, it can reach Tianshui, Gansu Province. From Gansu to the west in longxi area, there is a very famous Shandan military horse farm.From tianshui after QiShan north captured can be ruled by wei and now in gansu province in the central plains region of the link between the cut off, next to the west capturing shandan army horse ranch, so the shu army can get a lot of horses, cavalry form, instead of the cao army is due to lost shandan army horse ranch,The “basic plate” with which they maintained their cavalry was gone.Moreover, when the Shu Han army obtained the horses, it was very likely that they would go straight to Chang ‘an along the route of Gansu Hexi Corridor – Tianshui – Baoji – Chang ‘an, and revive the Han dynasty. Zhuge Liang’s many northern expeditions were through the Qishan mountain and qishan Road, which was an important passage.This is an important area for han and Wei armies to engage in battle.Secondly, from the perspective of logistics support.For the Shu army of the northern expedition, Qishan will be of great help to their logistics support.In ancient times, the most convenient way of logistic transportation was to carry out grain transport.One ship can transport grain as efficiently as dozens of military vehicles. It’s very efficient and convenient.The characteristic of Zhuge Liang’s army was that he preferred to travel by water, so that he could keep up with the logistics during long distance battles.There is a Qishou Mountain on the east side of tianshui, where the western Han River originated. The water of the Western Han River finally merged with the Jialing River in Liaoyang County.Considering the convenience of fighting, the ships transporting supplies of shu Han army arrived at Liaoyang county via the Jialing River instead of hanzhong.Therefore, from the point of view of logistics support, the Han army sending troops from Qishan to attack Wei can improve their operational efficiency. For Wei, occupying Qishan can cut off the logistics channel of han army’s northern expedition.After all, as the saying goes, the army and the horse should not move the food first.From the perspective of logistics, the affiliation of Qishan is related to the smooth or failure of logistics of han Army.Finally, for Zhuge Liang, Qishan Fort was an important base for the northern Expedition.Qishan fort is a solitary peak protruding from the broad plain, located on the north bank of the Western Han River.In terms of geographical position, after going over the Qinling Mountains with all difficulties, the Han army reached the plain from the qishanbao pass with great difficulty, which greatly enhanced the convenience of the Han Army in fighting.If the Han army captured qishan Fort, a very important military fort, they could build battle fortifications there, which would be a very important forward base for the Han Army.At present, we can still see the ruins of the fortress built there by the Han army led by Zhuge Liang.This position and fort has the following significance: First, the Han army can start from here to attack Tianshui in the north. The terrain is very suitable for attack, and it is not easy for the Wei army to defend.Second, the distance between Qishan Fort and the Western Han River is about 100 meters.If the Han army did not use land forces and used ships to carry materials for battle, the Han fleet could pass qishan Fort to attack the upper reaches of the Western Han River.In the war of The Three Kingdoms in the later period, most of the authorities of Cao Wei thought that shu Han’s national strength had declined and they would not send any large troops to the north.But Deng Ai, who was mainly in charge of operations in the western region of Gansu, had a different view. He believed that Jiang Wei, the general of the Shu army, most likely used ships to carry his soldiers, and then they would attack cao Wei along the western Han river around Qishan Fort.It can also be seen from here that the waterway advantage of Qishan Fort is very large.Third, Qishan Fort was close to Li County. If the Han army attacked Li County, Then Cao Wei’s Nan ‘an county would be under great threat.If the Han army occupied qishan Fort, it would be like holding the key to tianshui and longxi.Generally speaking, whether it is as big as the whole Qishan, western Han River, or as small as qishan fort, these areas are the key areas for han and Wei armies to seize.